FAILURE TO AMEND
February 19, 2013 § 1 Comment
It’s pretty common for lawyers to file pleadings subsequent to their initial pleading with updated allegations, added issues, and the word “Amended” prominently displayed in the document’s title. Quite often the lawyer on the other side treats the subsequent pleading(s) as the one(s) at issue, and the proof proceeds accordingly.
That practice, however, is not what the rules require, and, as we shall see, can cost your client big time. The proper procedure to amend pleadings is set out in MRCP 15:
(a) Amendments. A party may amend a pleading as a matter of course at any time before a responsive pleading is served, or, if a pleading is one to which no responsive pleading is permitted and the action has not been placed upon the trial calendar, the party may so amend it at any time within thirty days after it is served. On sustaining a motion to dismiss for failure to state a claim upon which relief can be granted, pursuant to Rule 12(b)(6), or for judgment on the pleadings, pursuant to Rule 12(c), leave to amend shall be granted when justice so requires upon conditions and within time as determined by the court, provided matters outside the pleadings are not presented at the hearing on the motion. Otherwise a party may amend a pleading only by leave of court or upon written consent of the adverse party; leave shall be freely given when justice so requires. A party shall plead in response to an amended pleading within the time remaining for response to the original pleading or within ten days after service of the amended pleading, whichever period may be longer, unless the court otherwise orders.
(d) Supplemental Pleadings. Upon motion of a party the court may, upon reasonable notice and upon such terms as are just, permit the party to serve a supplemental pleading setting forth transactions, occurrences, or events which have happened since the date of the pleading sought to be supplemented. Permission may be granted even though the original pleading is defective in its statement of a claim for relief or defense. If the court deems it advisable that the adverse party plead to the supplemental pleading, it shall so order, specifying the time therefor.
So to amend after the deadline in R15(a), you have to get leave of court. Otherwise, that “Amended” pleading is a nullity.
That’s what happened in McKnight v. Jenkins, decided February 14, 2013, by the MSSC.
Holly McKnight filed a petition to modify custody against Walter Jenkins, the father of her child whom she had given custody in a prior judgment of the court. Walter countered with a counterclaim for contempt and for modification. The contempt allegation was based on Holly’s alleged failure to return all of the child’s belongings at the conclusion of visitation. Some time before the date set for hearing, Walter filed a motion to amend his pleading to add the allegation that Holly had failed to pay her share of the child’s medical expenses, but Walter never presented the motion to the court.
Following a hearing, the chancellor denied Holly’s petition to modify, but found her in contempt for failure to pay the medical bills, and ordered her to pay Walter $21,000 for her share.
The MSSC reversed, pointing out that in order to recover on a contempt claim, there must be a pleading putting the other party on notice. The unamended pleading simply did not support the relief granted. By failing to get a court order granting leave to amend, Walter’s award of $21,000 was reversed.
There is language in the opinion to the effect that the parties understood that the issue of contempt for failure to pay the medical bills was not properly before the court, and the judge acknowledged as much, but he went ahead and adjudicated contempt anyway, which was error. Of course, had the issue been tried without objection, Walter’s lawyer could have made a timely motion to conform the pleadings to the proof, as set out in MRCP 15(b):
(b) Amendment to Conform to the Evidence. When issues not raised by the pleadings are tried by expressed or implied consent of the parties, they shall be treated in all respects as if they had been raised in the pleadings. Such amendment of the pleadings as may be necessary to cause them to conform to the evidence and to raise these issues may be made upon motion of any party at any time, even after judgment; but failure so to amend does not affect the result of the trial of these issues. If evidence is objected to at the trial on the ground that it is not within the issues made by the pleadings, the court may allow the pleadings to be amended and shall do so freely when the presentation of the merits of the action will be subserved thereby and the objecting party fails to satisfy the court that the admission of such evidence would prejudice the maintaining of the action or defense upon the merits. The court may grant a continuance to enable the objecting party to meet such evidence. The court is to be liberal in granting permission to amend when justice so requires.