June 20, 2011 § 7 Comments

I don’t think it’s an overstatement that the Mississippi Supreme Court’s decision in McDonald v. McDonald, 39 So.3d 868 (Miss. 2010), set chancery court practice vis a vis guardians ad litem (GAL) on its proverbial ear.  And it’s not so much what McDonald held as what it hinted at.

Before McDonald, it was common practice to allow a GAL to investigate, file a report, and testify to the results and findings of the investigation, including hearsay, and make a recommendation.  After all, most of what a GAL unearths is based on hearsay: the GAL interviews the children, neighbors, school teachers, parents, relatives, and reviews medical records and school records.  In my experience most chancellors allowed the GAL to testify to the facts disclosed in the investigation, and I don’t recall anyone ever objecting to the hearsay.  Most lawyers used the GAL’s report as a guide for what evidence would prove or disprove the case.  It was a good system that allowed a qualified person as an arm of the court to look behind the positions of the warring parties and to pierce the veil of partisanship.  I have observed on more than one occasion in contested child custody cases that the momma and dady are each zealously pursuing their own positions, but no one is looking out for the best interest of the children.  The GAL’s role as arm of the court was a perfect complement to the chancellor’s role as superior guardian of the children.  Frankly, it worked pretty well when a well-qualified and diligent GAL was involved.  When the GAL proved to be less than diligent, the chancellor was free to discount or even disregard the findings and recommendations.

Enter McDonald.  In that case, the mother in a child custody modification case objected to the GAL’s oral testimony, ” … stating that if the teachers and others being quoted by the GAL had something to report, they should have been required to be there. The court responded that
GALs are allowed by “historical practice” to offer hearsay testimony, and overruled the objection. ”  McDonald at 884.

The Supreme Court disagreed and pointed out without expressly holding that a GAL’s oral hearsay testimony should be excluded.  Justice Dickinson’s specially concurring opinion was even more blunt when he stated that MRE 1 expressly states that the evidentiary rules do apply in chancery court.  End of dicussion for him.

The court did not extend its hearsay proscription to GAL written reports, however.  The following language, beginning on page 882, is instructive:

“Jennifer argues that the GAL exceeded the proper role of a GAL by offering hearsay testimony, as well as taking ‘on a role as a litigant/expert’ by providing a written report to the court, making recommendations, discussing the views of the court-appointed counselor, filing a motion, testifying, examining witnesses, and meeting ex-parte with the chancellor. Other than offering hearsay testimony as discussed below, the GAL was simply following the provisions of the GAL statute and the pronouncements of this Court. This Court dealt recently with a similar issue in S.G. v. D.C., 13 So.3d 269 (Miss.2009), an opinion handed down after the briefs were filed in this appeal. The S.G. Court stated the following regarding the proper role of a GAL:

[A] guardian ad litem appointed to investigate and report to the court is obligated to investigate the allegations before the court, process the information found, report all material information to the court, and (if requested) make a recommendation. However, the guardian ad litem should make recommendations only after providing the court with all material information which weighs on the issue to be decided by the court, including information which does not support the recommendation. The court must be provided all material information the guardian ad litem reviewed in order to make the recommendation. Recommendations of a guardian ad litem must never substitute for the duty of a chancellor.  Id. at 282.

The GAL in the case sub judice did not offer the type of testimony criticized in S.G. See id. at 274 n. 5.  This GAL reported on matters required by her appointment, and consistent with a GAL’s duties as outlined in S.G. Id. at 282.

The statute’s provision that a GAL “shall have the duty to protect the interest of a child for whom he [or she] has been appointed guardian ad litem. The guardian ad litem shall investigate, make recommendations to the court or enter reports as necessary to hold paramount the child’s best interest,” is consistent with the traditional roles required of a GAL, which predate the enactment of the statutes. Miss.Code Ann. § 43-21-121(3) (Rev.2009). In In the Interest of D.K.L., 652 So.2d 184 (Miss.1995), this Court held that a GAL had failed in his duties by simply deferring to a therapist’s recommendations, and not submitting his own recommendation as to the best interests of a child. Id. at 188. The D.K.L. Court stated that the GAL ‘did not have an option to perform or not perform, rather he had an affirmative duty to zealously represent the child’s best interest.’ Id. In In the Interest of R.D., 658 So.2d 1378 (Miss.1995), this Court held that “children are best served by the presence of a vigorous advocate free to investigate, consult with [the children] at length, marshal evidence, and to subpoena and cross-examine witnesses.” Id. at 1383 (quoting Shainwald v. Shainwald, 302 S.C. 453, 395 S.E.2d 441, 444 (S.C.Ct.App.1990)). See also M.J.S.H.S. v. Yalobusha County Dep’t of Human Serv. ex rel. McDaniel, 782 So.2d 737, 740-42 (Miss.2001)(GAL failed in his duty by relying on DHS records and the recommendations of a therapist and social worker). In D.J.L. v. Bolivar County Department of Human Services ex rel. McDaniel, 824 So.2d 617 (Miss.2002), this Court found no error in a GAL’s cross-examination of witnesses. Id. at 622. The Court also ’emphatically proclaim[ed] to the bench and bar that … the guardian must submit a written report to the court during the hearing, or testify and thereby become available for cross-examination by the natural parent.’ Id. at 623. Therefore, the GAL would have been derelict in her duty to zealously represent the boys’ best interests if she had failed to interview the boys, consider the opinions of experts, marshal evidence, make an independent recommendation, question witnesses, submit reports, and make herself available for cross-examination.

The chancellor did not allow the GAL to usurp his role as the “ultimate finder of fact.” Id. The chancellor heard all witnesses, read all the
reports, and made his own decision based upon independent findings of fact.  Thus, we find this portion of Jennifer’s argument to be without merit.”

Footnote 7 on page 884 states:

“Hearsay testimony should not to be confused with a GAL’s written reports, which sometimes, by their very nature, will include statements, which, if offered into evidence at trial to prove the truth of the matter asserted, would be inadmissible hearsay, unless they qualify under one of the exceptions to the rule against hearsay. Any such inadmissible hearsay, however, would not require exclusion of the entire report. This issue is not before the Court this day.”

I have heard reactions to McDonald that just about cover the ball park.  One chancellor has said that he and the other judge in his district no longer appoint GAL’s unless they are required by statute because they feel that McDonald has rendered the GAL role ineffective and superfluous.  I have heard chancellors confess that they don’t have any idea where to go post McDonald when it comes to GAL’s.  And GAL’s have come to me and said they are now quite confused as to what they can and can not do.

The GAL system is far too valuable to chancery court to be relegated to the trash heap.  At least for the time being, chancery court maintains its historical distinction from circuit in that the chancellor has a high duty to act in the best interest of a child, and to have a greater role at trial than to be a mere referee blowing the whistle and throwing penalty flags for hearsay transgressions; the chancellor’s duty is to ensure that the best interest of a child is protected, even when the parties themselves do not do so.  The GAL has for many years given the chancellor a practical, effective way to meet his or her responsibility.

So how do we reconcile McDonald with the traditional role of the GAL?  I think it comes down to the following for the party who will make positive use of the GAL recommendations:

  1. Plan to qualify and tender the GAL as an expert.  Ask the court at the outset of trial for leave to allow the GAL to remain in the court room in her role as an expert, if the rule is invoked.
  2. Call every witness identified in the GAL report to establish the substantive facts that support the GAL’s recommendations, and, of course any other witnesses you feel that you need to call.
  3. Finally, call the GAL as an expert witness and offer her report into evidence.  She should qualify as an expert because of her legal training and experience, plus the fact that every GAL now must undergo special training and maintain certification.  And as for her testimony, remember that, under MRE 703, “The facts or data in the particular case upon which an expert bases an opinion or inference may be those perceived by or made known to him before the hearing.  If of a type reasonably relied upon by experts in the particular field in forming opinions or inferences upon the subject, the facts or data need not be admissible in evidence.”  Moreover, with all of the factual evidence already in the record, the GAL is free to comment on it.

But, you say, this will result in more cumbersome, longer and more expensive trials in custody actions with GAL’s.  You are certainly right, but that is what the supreme court is directing us to do.

My understanding is that the GAL in McDonald was qualified as an expert.  The opinion in McDonald did not explain why Rule 703 was not an adequate basis for her hearsay testimony that ” … need not be admissible in evidence.”  So until the MSSC takes another shot at the issue, I interpret McDonald to mean that the GAL may include hearsay in his report, and may testify to it NOT to establish the truth of the matter asserted, but to establish the basis for his recommendations.  In other words, you will have to call the witnesses and have them testify, and put the documents, photos and records in via competent testimony if you want or need those facts to be established in the record.

For now that is the way I will approach McDonald.

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  • […] A previous post on Coming to Grips with McDonald is here. […]

  • LadyLawyer says:

    New lawyer that just got appointed as G.A.L. This was very helpful, thank you.

  • david says:

    Is it common practice for a GAL to only personaly interview one side of a custody sute? The one side I speak of is for the mother which tested positive for illigal drugs and her many friends who also was personaly interview. The step-dads side was not interview but only the step dad by phone only. His wittiness were a 20 plus year police officer, a 20 plus yr parol officer and a 20 plus year school teacher to support the step dad. It is common practice to be so bisis and one sided? Also should the cost be split down the middle to pay the GAL.

    • Larry says:

      I can’t comment on the proof that was developed because That’s not enough information. The GAL report is only one aspect of the proof that the judge is required to examine. Also, it makes a difference whether the case was in youth court or in chancery. No judge is bound by a GAL report.

      As for the allocation of the GAL expense, it is up to the judge to hear all the evidence and to order what the judge deems fair based on that proof. In some cases, one side pays it all, and in others it is split with one side paying part and the other side paying the rest.

  • I served as a Guardian Ad Litem in Rankin County Chancery Court today and was glad to read this post while I was preparing!

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